Online exchanges have emerged as some of the internet's best businesses - but also as some of the worst
So the internet hasn't revolutionised the (0).....A.... most of us buy petrol, or watch movies. But there is one thing the internet does very well. It can bring together (19) ............ dispersed buyers and sellers to create active, efficient markets where none(20)............before. This facility has (21) ............to the emergence of online exchanges: retail businesses with none of the usual traders' risks - no merchandise, no storefronts - and with nothing to do but take a (22)............of each transaction that takes place on the site.
This may sound straightforward, but some high-profile online exchanges have(23)..........out to be major embarrassments. One company, which tried to establish a central marketplace on the internet for auto parts, has invested, in (24).............a massive $250m and is (25)............to stay in business. Another businessman, who facilitated online trading in business equipment and supplies, (26)............after he had lost $280m.
So what does a company need in order to be successful? You could call it good'market architecture' - a structure that (27)............the right business plan and top technology with good timing and the (28)............of both buyers and sellers.
Mike Pham's company, eStream, is an excellent example of one business that met these (29).............Back in 1996, when Pham was looking for a loan, he didn't like filling in the same form every time he (30)............to a new lender.That got him thinking. Why not (31)............prospective borrowers to complete a standard form and circulate that to a number of lenders, who would then make an offer to the borrower, in (32)............with each other?
Pham's company is doing well. Last year, eStream (33)............more than 1.5 million loans on behalf of 170 lenders.
19 A largely B deeply C mainly D widely
20 A existed B occurred C happened D developed
21 A led B brought C caused D resulted
22 A number B percentage C division D quantity
23 A pulled B made C turned D carried
24 A sum B total C amount D figure
25 A applying B exerting C struggling D forcing
26 A left out B gave up C drew back D ran down
27 A adds B connects C combines D links
28 A confidence B security C certainty D promise
29 A necessities B propositions C measures D criteria
30 A requested B asked C applied D demanded
31 A attract B invite C suggest D recommend
32 A contrast B conflict C challenge D competition
33 A performed B dealt C handled D treated
20题，以前从未存在过的。None existed before。
22题，take percentage of是个常用词组，意思是要拿走一部分。看个例句：I don’t take a percentage of your ad buy。在买卖中常用到这个说法。
23题，turned out to be，固定用法，结果是
26题，也要从意思上理解。这一段是讲的major embarrassments，举的例子都是消极的，前面说一个公司挣扎着要留下来，后面说当这个businessman损失了280m的时候，供应商放弃他了。用give up。
29题，meet/satisfy/fulfil criteria满足标准，看朗文的一个例句：To qualify for a grant, students must satisfy certain criteria。
30题，apply to 在这里是申请的意思：to make a formal request, usually written, for something such as a job, a place in a university, or permission to do something。看一个例句：I applied to four universities and was accepted by all of them.这个句子的意思是他不喜欢每次申请新的借款人时都要填相同的表格。
31题，这里填入invite，使用的是一个不太常用的意思：to politely ask someone to do something。礼貌的邀请某人做某事。整个句子的意思是邀请借款者填写一个标准的表格，然后表格在债主那里流通。
32题，in competition with each other相互竞争。
A director of the advertising agency owned by tycoon Bob Jacoby once grumbled that he wasn't enjoying his work. Jacoby's reply was, 'I don't pay you good money to enjoy yourself. If you enjoy working here, you should be paying me money.' Jacoby's sentiments used to be common.(0)____ Happily, things have changed. Most organisations now undertake regular staff appraisals, at which employees have the opportunity to discuss one-to-one with their line manager their ambitions and hopes, their strengths and weaknesses, their achievements and their disasters. But it is worth remembering how new all this is, and why.
For a start, appraising isn't something many managers do naturally of their own accord. They often find appraisals difficult to handle and have to be made to carry them out. Appraisal systems have become widespread partly as a result of employment legislation, but more particularly because companies have learned that such assessments can work to their advantage. (8)......The company can improve its collective performance by helping employees to improve their individual performance.
Managers who use appraisals need to approach them very carefully. They should bear in mind their own experiences of being appraised when in junior positions, recalling which appraisals were helpful, which were not, and why. In most cases, their own bosses did their homework, checking out the job specification, the C.V. and any previous reports. (9).........As a result, a lot of time would have been wasted, debating exactly what had happened and when.
Being prepared and appreciating what it is like to be on the receiving end are, indeed, the keys to successful appraising. It is important to begin an appraisal by giving members of staff a chance to express their own views about their performance. (10) ......... Any information gained from colleagues is normally given in a positive spirit, since nowadays everyone understands appraisals and appreciates that they are carried out with good intentions.
The atmosphere in the appraisal should be one of positive and open discussion about how the employee is performing in the company.(11).........Some individuals will feel unjustly criticised when their boss makes comments on their performance. Others will respond fiercely to a critical assessment - although if they defend themselves passionately, that is no bad thing!
Finally, it is important to regard appraisals as part of a continuing process.(12)......... Instead, they should be followed up with friendly questions from time to time, making it clear to employees that new goals and strategies suggested in them are to be taken seriously and are to be acted upon.
If these pieces of advice are followed, it is hoped that both the employees and the company as a whole will benefit from the experience.
A However, managers must take great care in this respect.
B Only after that should managers put forward their own points, which are likely to include comments collected from others in the organisation.
C They should not be forgotten as soon as they are over.
D Like many other aspects of free enterprise, appraisals are an excellent example of underlying self-interest.
E Sometimes the appraiser goes too far the other way and fails to communicate problem areas and scope for improvement.
F If they relied on memory, they probably got things wrong.
G Employees were paid, and they obeyed; if they didn't like it, they could leave.
第八题。第二段讲了评价的好处，对整个公司是有利的。第八空前面说公司认识到这些评估是对他们自己有利的。第八空的后面说公司可以通过帮助员工改进个人表现来改进集体的表现。从前后文的信息看，这一题应该填入表示评估对公司有利的句子，没有转折。D选择符合：同自由企业的其他方面一样，评价是潜在私利的杰出例子。这里的underlying self-interest可以对应于前面的work to their advantage。
第九题。第三段是讲经理们要小心谨慎的使用评价。第九空前面说经理们要记住自己处于底层时被评价的经历(bear in mind their own experiences of being appraised)，通常情况下需要查看任职资格、简历和先前的其他报告。而第九空后面说的是这样会浪费时间，争论到底发生了什么，什么时候发生的。可以第九空的意思有一定得转折，选F：如果他们依赖于记忆，很有可能把事情弄错。Relied on memory正好与前面的checking out the job specification相对应;got things wrong对应于后面的a lot of time would have been wasted。
Job specification : a written statement about a job that includes a job description and the skills, experience and personal qualities that sb needs in order to do the job, used when an organization is looking for a new person for a job.
第十题，这一题的答案比较明显。前后文内容很一致，还有明显的连词。这一空的前面说在开始评估前给每个员工一个表达对自己表现看法的机会很重要。答案是B：只有在那之后经理们才能提出自己的观点，这个观点可能包括从组织中的其他人那收集的评论。After that很明显是承接上文的连词，put forward their own points可以对应于前面的express their own views，而comments collected from others 是对应于后文的any information gained from colleagues。
第十二题。这一段是讲的持续评估的重要性。选C：他们不能一结束就被遗忘。前面的a continuing process和后面的 should be followed up都是关键词。
SHEER GENIUS - OR A WASTE OF TIME?
Encourage your original thinkers and live with their strange habits, says Alan Worthin
If one of your research staff announced that he had worked out a way to propel a vehicle on a cushion of air, would you tell him to concentrate on something practical, or suggest taking it further? If a member of your development team asked if she could come in late because she had her best ideas at 3 am would you insist that she is in the office at 9 am like everyone else?
Current business wisdom is that companies need creative, innovative people to beat competitors. The reality is that companies have always needed new ideas to survive and progress, but in the past they weren't particularly good at encouraging the people who produced them.
Original thinkers don't always fit easily into the framework of an organisation. However, the advice from managing director, John Serrano is, 'Get rid of the dull people and encourage the unusual ones'. Essentially, he believes that companies need to learn how to manage their original thinkers in order to ensure that the business profits from their contribution. He also says, 'Original thinkers often find it difficult to drive change within the organisation, so they resign, feeling angry and disappointed. It is essential to avoid this.'
'You can't recognise original thinkers by the way they look,' says Ian Freeman. An apparently ordinary exterior can conceal a very creative thinker.' His consultancy, IBT Personnel, has devised a structured way to identify original thinkers. 'We define employees as champions, free-wheelers, bystanders and weak links, and most original thinkers come into the category of free-wheelers. They may miss deadlines if they become involved in something more interesting. They are passionate and highly motivated but have li ttle or no understanding of business directions and systems.'
Headhunter George Solomon also thinks original thinkers have their disadvantages. 'They may have a bad influence within an organisation, especially given the current management trend for working in teams. The original thinkers themselves may be unaware of any problem, but having them around can be disruptive to colleagues. who have to be allowed to point out when they are being driven crazy by the original thinkers' behaviour.' Yet, in his opinion, the 'dream team' in any creative organisation consists of a balanced mixture of original thinkers and more practical, realistic people.
So, having identified your original thinkers, how do you handle them? One well-known computer games company has a very inventive approach. 'We encourage our games designers by creating an informal working environment,' says director Lorna Marsh. 'A company cannot punish risk-takers if it wants to encourage creativity. Management has to provide support, coaching and advice - and take the risk that new ideas may not work. Our people have flexible working hours and often make no clear distinction between their jobs and their home lives.'
Original thinkers may fit into the culture of 21st century organisations, but more traditional organisations may have to change their approach. Business psychologist Jean Row believes that the first step is to check that original thinkers are worth the effort. 'Are the benefits they bring worth the confusion they cause? If so, give them what they want, allow plenty of space, but set clear limits. Give them extremely demanding targets. If they fail to meet them, then the game is up. But if they succeed, your organisation stands only to gain.'
13 It is important for a company to encourage original thinkers because
A this allows it to promote innovative products.
B this enables it to stay ahead of its rivals.
C they are very flexible about their working hours.
D their talents are ideally suited to the market.
14 John Serrano thinks that original thinkers should be
A helped to develop better people management skills.
B asked to manage change within the organisation.
C supported so they can perform well for the company.
D encouraged to follow company procedures.
15 What does Ian Freeman say about original thinkers?
A They are unenthusiastic and poorly motivated.
B Their work standards are impossibly high.
C Their abilities are hard to recognise.
D They lack awareness of commercial processes.
16 What problems can be observed when there are original thinkers in the workforce?
A They may have a negative effect on other workers.
B They dislike the concept of teamwork.
C They rush tasks through to completion.
D They cannot work with less creative colleagues.
17 In what way is the games company's approach to original thinkers special?
A It allows them to work from home whenever they wish.
B It uses different forms of disciplinary action for them.
C It promotes a relaxed atmosphere in the workplace.
D It encourages them to reduce the risks that they take.
18 A traditional organisation wishing to employ original thinkers needs to
A provide them with projects they are interested in.
B assess whether their contribution makes up for any problems.
C have a flexible approach if goals are not always achieved.
D be prepared to handle any negative feedback from colleagues
《Sheer genius—or a waste of time》，纯粹是天才，还是浪费时间?文章讲的是公司里的那些有创意的人(original thinkers)，他们对于公司的存在到底有什么价值，公司又该怎么利用他们?
13题，问对于公司来讲鼓励有创意的人很重要的原因是什么。答案是第二段的第一句，非常明显：Current business wisdom is that companies need creative, innovative people to beat competitors。现如今的商业智慧是公司需要有创造性的、创新型的人才来打败对手。也就是B选项说的：让他们能够超越对手。
14题，问John认为有创意的人应该怎么样。答案是第三段：He believes that companies need to learn how to manage their original thinkers in order to ensure that the business profits from their contribution公司应该学会怎样管理有创意的人，从而确保公司能够从他们的贡献中盈利。也就是应该努力使那些有创意的人的才华能够造福公司。选C：他们应该得到支持，从而为公司做的好。其他几个选项根本没有说到点子上，一看就可以pass掉。
15题，Ian关于有创意的人是怎么说的。答案是第四段的最后一句：他们有激情有动力但是却对商业方向和系统一无所知。选D：缺乏对商业过程的了解。Business direction and systems可以和commercial processes相对应。
16题，问当工作场所出现了有创意的人，会发生什么问题。答案是第五段的这么一句：The original thinkers themselves may be unaware of any problem, but having them around can be disruptive to colleagues。他们自己可能没有意识到，但是有这样的人在身边会对同事们造成麻烦。disruptive是disturbing的意思。
17题，问游戏公司对待有创意的人的方式特别在什么地方。答案是第六段，看公司总监的原话：We encourage our games designers by creating an informal working environment。创造一种非正式的工作环境，也就是C选项说的relaxed atmosphere。这题可能会有人误选A，那是错误的理解了最后一句。最后一句说工作和家庭生活没有明显的区别，是说工作时间是弹性的，不代表同意他们随时随意在家里工作。
18题，问传统的机构如果想要雇佣有创意的人需要什么。答案是最后一段的这么一句话：the first step is to check that original thinkers are worth the effort.。第一步是检测这些有创意的人是否值得所作的这些努力。后面紧接着问了，他们带来的好处是否值得他们造成的混乱?所以答案是B：评估他们的贡献能否弥补任何问题。
Setting up an appraisal scheme
Appraisals can be a wonderful opportunity for your staff to focus on their jobs and make plans to develop their unused potential. (0) ..........So, if you have decided that an appraisal scheme should be set up in your company, you need to establish some formal procedures and make some decisions before you begin. Even if your company already has a scheme, you need to consider what you want to achieve and how you are going to do this.
First of all, you need to decide on your key objectives and the real purpose of your scheme.(8).............A scheme should never be introduced at a time of redundancies, or simply for profit or competitive edge, because this will create fear and alienate staff. The next step is to decide how the scheme can most successfully be managed. It is essential that all senior staff are committed to the process and willing to make a positive contribution.
The person given responsibility for designing the scheme and the appraisal forms needs to have knowledge of all roles within the organisation. He or she must also be aware of employees' potential needs. (9).............It should be someone who is trusted and whom staff will turn to if they are concerned about their appointed appraiser or the appraisal interview. The design of the scheme should indicate who will be appraising whom. This needs great tact and sensitivity. First, remember that no manager can effectively appraise more than seven or eight people. It is equally important to remember that, if significant numbers of staff are appraised by someone they dislike, or by a person whose values they do not share, the success of your scheme may be threatened.(10) ............. So bear this in mind from the beginning and, if necessary, establish an appeals procedure.
Having decided on your policy and who will appraise which members of staff, you need to communicate this in the simplest possible way. Avoid lengthy documents - few people will read them. (11).............Most organisations choose a person's line manager to be the appraiser. This can be seen as an opportunity or a threat, so be ready to consider alternatives if necessary.
Once you have established the appraisal process, make sure that appraisal interviews take place at a convenient time, and ideally on neutral ground. It should be borne in mind that some appraisals may involve the disclosure of confidential information. (12) .............These will show the decisions that were taken during the interview and will also indicate any new performance targets that have been agreed.