3) gre写作中举例常见的表达方式如for example,/for instance, (后加句子)Such as/ like (后加词组)，Take... as an example, A case in point is that...等。
Most people often look for similarities, even between very different things, and even when it it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms: we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else.
In the age of accelerating changes, the eagerness to understand things in an effective and equally efficient way is more than ever. Although all kinds of complex techniques, skills and equipments helpful for understanding and studying the objects are easily accessible to people, the basic strategies stay the same as before: one is starting from similarities and the other from distinction. From my personal point of view, only by using the two in proper proportion and order can one achieve his/her goal to understand a thing.
Looking for similarities is a proper starting point. When we first meet something new,we need to clarify its basic attributes, finding similarites with other familiar things and classify it according to those attributes. Classification according to similaties is of great assistance to provide us with an outline, basic knowledge which we can base further investigation upon. Although things in contemporary age represent themselves in various forms and styles, similarities exist in any pair as long as certain perspective can be found. For instance, Bookcase and window are so different that at first glance, one
may not be able to find the similarities, or even such an effort seems to be meaningless. Yet, they are both part of a house, something that must be taken into consideration when decorating or refurnishing the house. Such a comparison would be helpful for us to realize that “buy” and “sell” are two basic operation we can have upon window even though we have no idea what window is made of, how it is produced or what its function is.What’s more, looking for similarities not only refer to the object itself, but the relationship with others. Similar relationships helps people understand things in groups or pairs using the strategy: analogy. Analogy is especially useful when the charactertistics of a relationship rather than the objects themselves are the focus of understanding and when similar relationships are known and objects unknown. For example, if told that the relationship between window and ASVE is similar to that between book and read, one can safely guess that ASVE is the operation people can take on window although ASVE stays an unknown action.
Definitely, mere similarity usually exclude the distinctive characteristics of a thing. We need to investigate its own terms for deeper understanding. Within the rough outline sketched by similarity, a more detailed and well-articulated picture can be drawn by grasping own terms of a thing. Still take window as an example. From careful observation, we know that it is transparent, it consists of different chemical materials, it performs the function as to protect privacy, to preserve desirable temperature indoor, and sometimes to prevent rains and snows from going inside. Deeper and further understanding of window can only be gained when we take its own terms besides those it shares with bookcase into consideration.
In the newly development software engineering model named Object-oriented model,the strategy “similarity first and differences later” functions as the core and focus of the whole model. Objects sharing common points are put into same “classes” and common points are processed together, later they are defined, discussed and processed respectively according to their own characteristics. This method greatly reduces the repetive time and energy spent over and over again on similar, if not utterly same, terms. Translated into daily life, starting from similarites for a quick outline and transferring to grasp distinctive characteristics for deeper understanding isthe approach we should always bear in mind when hoping to understand a thing with effectiveness and efficiency.
Practicality is now our great idol, which all powers and talents must serve.Anything that is not obviously practical has little value in today's world.
In today’s society idealism seems to become an ideology that is marginalized and practicality is our great idol, thus, the speaker asserts that anything that is not practical bears little value. I admit that being practical is the wide-accepted dogma in order to survive in this world, but by going too far to claim that anything that is not practical has little value is against the empirical observation as well as the general stimulus that push the human society forward.
Admittedly, practicality has become a cult in today’s society. Too often do we hear people talk about being practical whenever they come to make important decisions or choose between several alternatives. The deep-rooted cause underlying this phenomenon is that with the development of modern society, the emphasis is placed more on financial gaining, quick fame, sensible choice and so forth. Our society is rather stable compared with that of the last century when war, violence, human right movements has become the symbol of that period. People are enjoying this peaceful environment with less crucial missions rested upon them and as a result, they shift from idealism to struggle for the common well being of mankind to the practical concept of individual achievement.
This ideology has its merits since after all the disaster and upheaval that our human race has undergone, it is judicious to focus on the economic aspect of things in order to tackle the most important social problems such as poverty, hunger and environmental problems which all deserve us to sit down and work out practical solutions. On the personal level, being practical is how a person would possibly succeed in his career or personal life. One is likely to make sensible decisions for his education and job choice on the basis of practical consideration of his own strength and weakness and careful analysis of the prospect of research direction and job market. Even those in power and intellects need to consider practically since hasty decision built upon pure ideal meditation would hardly find its way in the modern society and is doom to failure.
Agreeing with the speaker that practicality has become the great idol in our society, I am strongly against his point that anything that is not practical has little value. Even in today’s society, idealism is by no means relegated to the place of total neglect and disregard. For one thing, in history, so much achievement is the outcome of several generations’ struggle such as fighting for equality for women, human rights movement,etc. In today’s society, practicality is the way we can obtain our goal but idealism offers the philosophical explanation of why we should set this as our goal and the clear the ultimate value of our pursuing. What is more, by totally fixed one's eyes upon the practical aspect of things, we face the danger of neglecting one important part of our pursuit, that is the mental enjoyment brought out by idealism. If we have a clear goal set in mind and put practical endeavor at the same time, the result would be more satisfactory and valuable.
To sum up, I agree with the speaker insofar as the wide acceptance of practicality is considered. Being practical is the tenet of modern society and it does shed light on the wise way of doing things and obtaining goals, no matter in the personal or social level.But the speaker goes too far by claiming that it is the only valuable ideology in society.I am strongly against this idea since in history or at present, we human beings still need the philosophical explanation to clear our goal and to provide motivation. In this aspect, idealism would never be replaced with pure practical consideration. Otherwise,human society will be replete with insensible people directed by economic profit and quick fame and recognition.