托福口语如何应对思维考察类题型

时间:2020-09-03 04:39:25

托福口语如何应对思维考察类题型?训练逻辑思维很重要,今天小编给大家带来了托福口语如何应对思维考察类题型,希望能够帮助到大家,下面小编就和大家分享,来欣赏一下吧。

托福口语如何应对思维考察类题型?训练逻辑思维很重要

托福口语重在考察逻辑思维能力

说到口语,人们的第一反应多半是语音语调,其实对于托福考试来说,口语部分考察的并不只有语音语调,还有相当大的比重是考察学生的逻辑思维能力,这就要求考生的答案内容充实,逻辑清晰,特别是口语的 3-6 题涉及对题干的整合,所以对考生逻辑能力的要求也就更高。如果对材料的整合不过关,即使语音语调炸翻天,也会显得内容过 low,从而很难获得高分。

实例讲解托福口语对逻辑思维的要求

下面就用具体题目来解释一下,所谓逻辑清晰、内容完备的高分答案长什么样。

托福口语第五题属于校园对话,题目设置非常清楚:听力对话会给出其中一人面临的困境和两个解决方案,但是两个方案各有利弊,需要考生给出建议并解释原因。本题题目要求如下:

Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation.

接下来我们听一下这段音频,听完音频之后,我们需要对音频内容进行笔记整理。

Problems: bus leaves earlier V.S. can’t catch it because of chemistry class

Solution 1: work at night

detail 1: boss agree & won’t miss the bus

Detail 2: tired, have class next morning

Solution 2: ride a bike

Detail 3: work on time, not far, do some exercise

Detail 4: bad weather

借助笔记,整个材料的内容尽收眼底,我们可以清楚的看出两个方案的利弊,所以在回答的时候就能明确该如何取舍。需要注意的是,答案没有对错之分,不论选择哪个方案,只要理由充分即可。如果你更倾向于 solution 1,那么你的理由就应该是 detail 1 和detail 4;同样的,如果觉得 solution 2 更好,那对应的理由就是 detail 2 和 detail 3。在此基础上,如果时间允许,最好将自己所选解决方案的弊端也阐述一下,例如如果选择为 solution 2,针对其弊端,也就是 detail 4,可以弱化其影响,从而显得 solution 2 更有说服力。以本题为例,就可以说 bad weather 属于个别现象,所以对骑行的影响很小,即使发生,可以临时想办法调整。

在时间安排上,60s 的作答时间,一般描述困境和两个解决方案在 15s 左右,给出自己的建议需要 5s,最后 40s 用来解释建议的理由。当然考试安排不一定非得严格按照这个时间来规划,反而会限制自己的发挥,不过可以以此为参考, 以求让自己的条理更清晰,内容更完整。

具备高水平逻辑思维能力的解答参考

最后,给出一个sample answer供各位考生参考:

The man’s problem is that the bus schedule has changed and therefore, he can’t catch the bus for his chemistry class. He can either change his work time or ride a bike to his workplace.

For me, riding a bike is a more preferable choice. You see, if the man works at night, he must be tired and in a bad state for the morning class next day. If he rides a bike, however, he can not only be there on time but also do some exercise. Actually it’s not far, for just about 15 minutes.

Of course riding a bike is uncomfortable when the weather is bad, but this may not happen often. And though it happens, the man can then choose to work at night or come up with some other solutions.

托福考试口语备考:新托福口语解码

对于广大准备到海外求学的托福考生而言,2006年9月15日实施的新托福无疑是个陌生的领域,而其中的口语部分由于首次在托福考试中亮相而倍显神秘。

新托福的口语部分模拟了北美大学课堂的学术气氛及学生在校园生活的方方面面,要求考生能够做课堂笔记、发表自己的意见和看法,并具备对教授推荐的参考书写读书报告、阐明论点的能力,以及其它处理校园生活中可能遇到的各种情况的能力。

现行的托福虽然不设口语测试,但其姐妹篇TSE(Test of Spoken English)恰好弥补了这方面的不足。新托福的口试也将在现行TSE考试的基础上孕育产生。

相对于TSE而言,新托福的口试在形式与内容上有了继承的发展。

TSE的形式与内容

TSE考试全部过程约为60分钟,但实际考试时间仅为20分钟,而考生录到磁带上的答题录音累计时间则更短,仅为6分钟左右。

试题的指导说明在试题册和制好的试题磁带上,考生对试题的回答将和题干一并录入空白的答题磁带上。

现行TSE考试试题共分为七部分:

(1)用录音提问一些考生本人的基本情况。每一问题之后,有短暂的答题时间,在实际考试中,答题时间每题约为15秒钟。

(2)题册上给出一篇短文。考生先用一分钟时间阅读,然后用一分钟时间朗读。要求发音准确,口齿清晰,朗读流畅。

(3)题册上给出一系列不完整的句子,考生可随自己的思路加以补充完成。答案可以不同,但完成的句子要意思完整,语法准确。实际考试时,完成每个句子允许用10秒钟时间。

(4)题册上给出一组系列故事的连环画。考生进行看图说话。考生可先用一分钟看这些画面,然后再用一分钟叙述故事,叙述时应尽可能准确和详细。

(5)题册上给出一副画和就此画提出的4个问题。在听问题之前可以看图一分钟,然后仔细听题并作答。回答时,考生应在允许的时间里尽可能多说一些,每一题回答时允许用12秒钟时间。

(6)要求考生描述某些事物或就国际上普遍关注的话题发表意见。考生在允许时间里对每一问题要尽可能多加评论。评分取决于考生如何表达思想的方式,而不取决于观点本身。考试中,回答每个问题的时间为45秒钟。

(7)题册上给出班级、俱乐部或会议等的活动日程或通知。考生可先仔细阅读一分钟后,用一分钟时间解释这些日程或通知。解释时一定要包括所有重要的细节,并要设想自己是对很多听众作解释,而不能仅仅翻译这些日程或通知。

可见,现行的TSE通过对以上七部分内容的测试,基本上可以判断出考生的英语口头表达能力,包括语音、语调及语法的掌握程度。

新托福口语的形式与内容

我个人认为TSE考试在托福改题之后仍会继续考察一段时间,从而逐步淡出历史舞台。而取而代之的新托福可以说是TSE考试的加强版。这个部分共有6道题,持续约20分钟,包括独立回答题,读听后回答题和先听后答题等三种题型,以考察学生的阅读理解,听力理解和口语表达等综合能力。下面我们就结合ETS对新托福口语部分的指导说明来揭开新托福口语的“神秘面纱”:

Speaking Section Directions In this section of the test, you will be able to demonstrate your ability to speak about a variety of topics. You will answer six questions by speaking into the microphone. Answer each of the questions as completely as possible.

In questions one and two, you will speak about familiar topics. Your response will be scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently about the topics.

第1题和第2题为独立回答题,要求考生就某一话题阐述自己的观点。准备时间为15秒,回答问题时间为45秒。问题会被朗读出来,同时会出现在屏幕上。比如:

Narrator Describe a class you have taken in school and explain why the class was important to you. Include details and examples to support your explanation.

Please begin speaking after the beep. [2 secs beep]

[Appearing on screen]

1. Describe a class you have taken in school and explain why the class was important to you. Include details and examples to support your explanation.

Preparation time: 15 seconds

Response time: 45 seconds

In questions three and four, you will first read a short text. The text will go away and you will then listen to a talk on the same topic. You will then be asked a question about what you have read and heard. You will need to combine appropriate information from the test and the talk to provide a complete answer to the question. Your response will be scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently and on your ability to accurately convey information about what you read and heard.

第3题和第4题则以试题中的阅读和听力材料为基础,要求考生回答相关问题。具体步骤是首先让考生在45秒内阅读一篇短文,一般只含一个自然段,随后短文隐去,播放一段与短文相关的对话或课堂演讲,其长度大约为1分半钟。最后,要求考生根据先前阅读的短文和播放的对话或课堂演讲回答相关问题,考生有30秒钟的准备时间,然后进行60秒钟的回答,考生可以在听录音的过程中做笔记来帮助答题。比如:

Reading Time: 45 seconds

Announcement from the president The university has decided to increase tuition and fees for all students by approximately 8 percent next semester. For the past 5 years, the tuition and fees have remained the same, but it is necessary to increase them now for several reasons. The university has many more students than we had five years ago, and we must hire additional professors to teach these students. We have also made a new commitment to research and technology, and will be renovating and upgrading our laboratory facilities to better meet our students' needs.

Narrator

Now listen to two students as they discuss the announcement. [2 seconds]

Student A Oh great, now we have to come up with more money for next semester.

Student B Yeah, I know, but I can see why. When I first started here, classes were so much smaller than they are now. With this many students, it's hard to get the personal attention you need……

Student A Yeah, I guess you're right. You know, in some classes I can't even get a seat. And I couldn't take the math course I wanted to because it was already full when I signed up.

Student B And the other thing is, well, I am kind of worried about not being able to get a job after I graduate.

Student A Why? I mean you're doing really well in your classes, aren't you?

Student B I'm doing ok, but the facilities here are so limited. There are some great new experiments in microbiology that we can't even do here…… there isn't enough equipment in the laboratories, and the equipment they have is out of date. How am I going to compete for jobs with people who have practical research experience? I think the extra tuition will be a good investment. [2 seconds]

Narrator The woman expresses her opinion of the announcement made by the university president. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.

Please begin speaking after the beep. [2 secs beep]

3. The woman expresses her opinion of the announcement made by the university president. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.

Preparation time: 30 seconds

Response time: 60 seconds

In questions five and six, you will listen to part of a conversation or a lecture. You will then be asked a question about what you heard. Your response will be scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently and on your ability to accurately convey information about what you heard

第五、六题要求考生先听一段听力材料,然后回答相关问题。听力材料通常一段是情景对话,另一段是课堂演讲,其长度大约为1分半钟。考生有20秒钟的准备时间,之后进行60秒钟的回答。比如:

Narrator Please Listen Carefully

Narrator You may begin to prepare your response after the beep. [2 secs beep]

Narrator Now listen to a conversation between two students.

Student A Hey Lisa, how's it going?

Student B Hi Mark. Uh, I'm OK, I guess, but my schoolwork is really stressing me out.

Student A [sympathetically] Yeah? What's wrong?

Student B Well, I've got a paper to write, and two exams to study for. And a bunch of math problems to finish. It's just so much that I can't concentrate on any of it. I start concentrating on studying for one of my exams, and then I'm like, how long's it gonna take to finish that problem set?

Student A Wow sounds like you've got a lot more work than you can handle right now. [Not wanting to sound too pushy] Look have you talked to some of your professors……I mean, you know , try to explain the problem. Look, you could probably get an extension on your paper, or on the math assignment……

Student B You think? It would give me a little more time to prepare for my exams right now.

Student A Well, I mean another thing that you might do …… I mean have you tried making yourself a schedule? I mean that's what I do when I'm feeling overwhelmed.

Student B What does that do for you?

Student A Well, I mean it helps you to focus your energies. You know, you make yourself a chart that shows the next few days and the time till your stuff is due and……

Student B Uh-huh [meaning “I'm listening”]

Student A I mean think about what you need to do, and when you have to do it by. You know then start filling in your schedule——like, all right 9:00 [nine] to 11:30 [eleven-thirty] A.M., study for exam. 12:00 [twelve] to 3:00 [three], work on problem set. But I mean don't make the time periods too long. Like, don't put in eight hours of studying——you know, you'll get tired, or start worrying about your other work again. But if you keep to your schedule, you know you'll just have to worry about one thing at a time.

Student B Yeah, that might work. [somewhat noncommitally]

Narrator The students discuss two possible solutions to the woman's problem. Describe the problem. Then state which of the two solutions you prefer and explain why.

Please begin speaking after the beep. [2 secs beep]

[Appearing on screen]

5. The students discuss two possible solutions to the woman's problem. Describe the problem. Then state which of the two solutions you prefer and explain why.

Preparation time: 20 seconds

Response time: 60 seconds

You may take notes while you read and while you listen to the conversations and lectures. You may use your notes to help prepare your response.Listen carefully to the directions for each question. The directions will not be written on the screen.

For each question you will be given a short time to prepare your response. A clock will show how much preparation time is remaining. When the preparation time is up, you will be told to begin your response. A clock will show how much response time is remaining. A message will appear on the screen when the response time has ended.

考生可以在听音过程中记笔记以帮助答题。在准备和答题时,屏幕上会显示倒计时的时钟。每个回答的得分是0-4分,分数范围是0-30.其评分以回答的质量、完整性和准确性为依据.

托福考试口语备考:新托福口语解码

对于绝大多数中国考生而言,Presentation Skills的缺乏势必导致两大误区:

第一大误区是先Beat around the bush,再渐渐切入正题,最后才做出较为精准的总结。这显然与以汉语为母语的语言交流习惯有关,这在平时的一般交流中或许不那么致命,甚至有些英语为母语的人平时讲话也有这种习惯,但是在一分钟甚至是45秒的答题时间里这样做,就无异于浪费宝贵的答题时间,将60秒或45秒的可用来得分的空间缩小到30秒甚至是20秒,使整个答案的质量大打折扣。

第二大误区是毫无计划地想到哪,说到哪,甚至中途改变主意,否定前面所说内容,做出一个自相矛盾的答案。对于ETS的命题者来说,这两种误区都恰恰暴露了中国学生没有受过系统的Presentation训练的弱点。要知道,在西方特别是北美,这是一项从中小学就开始注重培养的跨学科的综合技能。

那么怎样才可以避免以上两种误区呢?下面就结合新托福口语的三大题型分别作以解析:

一。独立回答题:

Describe a class you have taken in school and explain why the class was important to you. Include details and examples to support your explanation.

Preparation time: 15 seconds

Response time: 45 seconds

阅读题干应该在5秒内完成,这样就能保证在答题之前有20秒的时间(包括narrator读题时间)进行brain-storming.有关在学校上过的一门课的重要性不外乎从以下几个方面来叙述。

第一,这门课对于其它后续课的奠基作用。第二,所积累的知识对于今后实际运用的指导作用。第三,对于个人综合素质及品位的提高。

为什么要分成这么多点论述呢?因为如果只就一个要点深入阐述,很容易走题或者进入一个英语无法表达的死角;同时分成若干点还便于控制时间。比如这道题目的45秒答题时间可以分配给每个分点10秒,这样就不会过早或者过晚地完成整个答题的语言结构。

至于选什么课来说则遵循什么容易就讲什么的原则,这是因为托福口语考试和ETS其它考试一样是不需要任何专业背景的知识的。因此,考生大可以谈一些中学里学过的主课,如数学,语文和外语,而避免谈大学里的专业课,如生物,化学及各类工程类课程等。

在开始答题的时候,应首先说出一句Topic Sentence 点出这门课的名称。如果准备不是很充分,为了避免出现答题空白,可以附带交代这门课的背景信息,如何时选修的,哪位教授任课,但一定要控制在10秒以内。这种技能叫Skill of Buying Time.随后,三条理由依次列出,切不可忘记Important是论述的核心,千万不能无意中转而强调这门课Difficult或Interesting.

本题参考答案:

In my previous studies at college, there are quite a few importance courses and one of the most important one of them, if I had to choose one, would be Calculus. Well, as I am an engineering major, in my curriculum there are many courses requiring complicated calculation, equation deduction and math model building. All these need knowledge in calculus as a foundation. Besides, mastery of some quantitative analysis methods will greatly benefit my ability to make a sensible judgment in a complex situation in workplace, no matter what job I'll take up in the future. Finally, without a good sense of advanced mathematics, I will not be able to appreciate the beauty of symmetry in many artistic forms.

二。读听后回答题

Reading Time: 45 seconds

Announcement from the president The university has decided to increase tuition and fees for all students by approximately 8 percent next semester. For the past 5 years, the tuition and fees have remained the same, but it is necessary to increase them now for several reasons. The university has many more students than we had five years ago, and we must hire additional professors to teach these students. We have also made a new commitment to research and technology, and will be renovating and upgrading our laboratory facilities to better meet our students' needs.

Narrator

Now listen to two students as they discuss the announcement. [2 seconds]

Student A Oh great, now we have to come up with more money for next semester.

Student B Yeah, I know, but I can see why. When I first started here, classes were so much smaller than they are now. With this many students, it's hard to get the personal attention you need……

Student A Yeah, I guess you're right. You know, in some classes I can't even get a seat. And I couldn't take the math course I wanted to because it was already full when I signed up.

Student B And the other thing is, well, I am kind of worried about not being able to get a job after I graduate.

Student A Why? I mean you're doing really well in your classes, aren't you?

Student B I'm doing ok, but the facilities here are so limited. There are some great new experiments in microbiology that we can't even do here…… there isn't enough equipment in the laboratories, and the equipment they have is out of date. How am I going to compete for jobs with people who have practical research experience? I think the extra tuition will be a good investment. [2 seconds]

Narrator The woman expresses her opinion of the announcement made by the university president. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.

Please begin speaking after the beep. [2 secs beep]

The woman expresses her opinion of the announcement made by the university president. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.

Preparation time: 30 seconds

Response time: 60 seconds

对于该题,首先要快速读完文字通知部分,再听懂AB两者间的对话方可答题。若在答题前先扫描题干,可以看出这道题也是一道Issue题,只是其观点并非由答题者自由发挥,而是必须在听明白其中那名女生的观点后加以有条理的复述。

请特别注意,这道题的关键是要阐述她的观点并加以说理,若一些举例性的细节实在没有听清楚可以略过。不过这也意味着归纳总结能力是此题所考查的英语语言运用能力之一。

本题参考答案:

The woman is in favor of the university's decision to raise the tuition and fee for all students. One of her reasons is that the university needs to hire more faculty members so that class size would be made smaller. She has noticed that the ever-expanding class size has kept students from getting enough personal attention they need. She also agrees that the lack of faculty members has led to the limited opportunity for students to take the courses they are interested in. Besides, she thinks it is highly necessary for the university to be financed to purchase better research facilities so that students would have the opportunity to conduct all the experiments they need to master for their future career.

三。先听后答题

Narrator Please Listen Carefully

Narrator You may begin to prepare your response after the beep. [2 secs beep]

Narrator Now listen to a conversation between two students.

Student A Hey Lisa, how's it going?

Student B Hi Mark. Uh, I'm OK, I guess, but my schoolwork is really stressing me out.

Student A [sympathetically] Yeah? What's wrong?

Student B Well, I've got a paper to write, and two exams to study for. And a bunch of math problems to finish. It's just so much that I can't concentrate on any of it. I start concentrating on studying for one of my exams, and then I'm like, how long's it gonna take to finish that problem set?

Student A Wow sounds like you've got a lot more work than you can handle right now. [Not wanting to sound too pushy] Look have you talked to some of your professors……I mean, you know , try to explain the problem. Look, you could probably get an extension on your paper, or on the math assignment……

Student B You think? It would give me a little more time to prepare for my exams right now.

Student A Well, I mean another thing that you might do …… I mean have you tried making yourself a schedule? I mean that's what I do when I'm feeling overwhelmed.

Student B What does that do for you?

Student A Well, I mean it helps you to focus your energies. You know, you make yourself a chart that shows the next few days and the time till your stuff is due and……

Student B Uh-huh [meaning “I'm listening”]

Student A I mean think about what you need to do, and when you have to do it by. You know then start filling in your schedule——like, all right 9:00 [nine] to 11:30 [eleven-thirty] A.M., study for exam. 12:00 [twelve] to 3:00 [three], work on problem set. But I mean don't make the time periods too long. Like, don't put in eight hours of studying——you know, you'll get tired, or start worrying about your other work again. But if you keep to your schedule, you know you'll just have to worry about one thing at a time.

Student B Yeah, that might work. [somewhat noncommitally]

Narrator The students discuss two possible solutions to the woman's problem. Describe the problem. Then state which of the two solutions you prefer and explain why.

Please begin speaking after the beep. [2 secs beep]

[Appearing on screen]

5. The students discuss two possible solutions to the woman's problem. Describe the problem. Then state which of the two solutions you prefer and explain why.

Preparation time: 20 seconds

Response time: 60 seconds

本题参考答案:

I would prefer the second solution suggested by the woman in the dialogue because I think studying with certain measure of pressure is good exercise for one's ability to budget and make full use of time. In this way, making effective schedules is very important for it optimizes the distribution of time resource over different study tasks, keeping the learner from spending time irrationally over long periods of low-efficiency work. Also once a schedule is made, by strictly observing it, a learner can avoid any unconscious behavior of procrastination or slacking off, keeping himself energetic in the alternation of different study tasks. Application for an extension on the paper or assignment might be a good idea, but it does not solve the problem eventually. Sooner or later, all the tasks have to be carried out and sometime it's hard to foresee if another test is one the way…