时间:2021-01-13 18:14:18




Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people will 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3 .

In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School of Business tested. Student’s willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked.

Twenty-seven students were told which pens were electrified, another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified 7 left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew what would 8 subsequent experiments reproduced, this effect with other stimuli 9 the sound of finger nails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.

The drive to_10_is deeply rooted in humans. Much the same as the basic drives for_11_or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago Curiosity is often considered a good instinct-it can _12_New Scientific advances, for instance-but sometimes such_13_can backfire, the insight that curiosity can drive you to do _14_things is a profound one.

Unhealthy curiosity is possible to 15 , however, in a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. ” Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity. Hsee says “in other words, don’t read online comments”.

1. [A]Protect [B] resolve [C] discuss [D] ignore

2. [A]refuse [B] wait [C] regret [D] seek

3. [A]hurt [B] last [C]mislead [D] rise

4. [A]alert [B] tie [C] treat [D] expose

5. [A]message [B] review [C] trial [D] concept

6.[A] remove [B] weaken [C] interrupt [D] deliver

7.[A]when [B] if [C] though [D] unless

8.[A] continue [B] happen [C] disappear [D] change

9.[A] rather than [B] regardless of [C] such as [D] owing to

10.[A] discover [B] forgive [C] forget [D] disagree

11.[A] pay [B] marriage [C] schooling [D] food

12.[A] lead to [B]rest on [C] learn from [D] begin with

13.[A] withdrawal [B] persistence [C] inquiry [D] diligence

14.[A] self-reliant [B] self-destructive [C] self-evident [D] self-deceptive

15.[A] define [B] resist [C]replace [D] trace

16.[A] overlook [B] predict [C] design [D] conceal

17.[A] remember [B] promise [C] choose [D] pretend

18.[A] relief [B] plan [C] duty [D] outcome

19.[A] why [B] whether [C] where [D] how

20.[A] consequences [B] investments [C] strategies [D] limitations



Read the following text。Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and markA,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1(10 points)

In our contemporary culture,the prospect of communicating with-or even looking at-a stranger is virtually unbearable Everyone around us seems to agree by the way they fiddle with their phones,even without a 1 underground

It's a sad reality-our desire to avoid interacting with other human beings-because there's 2 to be gained from talking to the strange r standing by you. But you wouldn't know it, 3 into your phone. This universal armor sends the 4 :"Please don't approach me."

What is it that makes us feel we need to hide 5 our screens?

One answer is fear, according to Jon Wortmann, executive mental coach We fear rejection,or that our innocent social advances will be 6 as"creep,"We fear we'II be 7 We fear we'II be disruptive Strangers are inherently 8 to us,so we are more likely to feel 9 when communicating with them compared with our friends and acquaintances To avoid this anxiety, we 10 to our phones."Phones become our security blanket,"Wortmann says."They are our happy

glasses that protect us from what we perceive is going to be more 11 ."

But once we rip off the bandaid,tuck our smartphones in our pockets and look up,it doesn't 12 so bad. In one 2011 experiment,behavioral scientists Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder asked commuters to do the unthinkable: Start a 13 . They had Chicago train commuters talk to their fellow 14 . "When Dr.Epley and Ms. Schroeder asked other people in the same train station to 15 how they would feel after talking to a stranger, the commuters thought their 16 would be more pleasant if they sat on their own," the New York Times summarizes. Though the participants didn't expect a positive experience, after they 17 with

the experiment, "not a single person reported having been snubbed."

18 , these commutes were reportedly more enjoyable compared with those sans communication, which makes absolute sense, 19 human beings thrive off of social connections. It's that 20 : Talking to strangers can make you feel connected.

1. [A] ticket [B] permit [C]signall [D] record

2. [A] nothing [B] link [C]another [D] much

3. [A] beaten [B] guided [C]plugged [D] brought

4. [A] message [B] cede [C]notice [D] sign

5. [A] under [B] beyond [C] behind [D] from

6. [A] misinterprete [B] misapplied [C] misadjusted [D] mismatched

7. [A] fired [B] judged [C] replaced [D] delayed

8. [A] unreasonable [B] ungreatful [C] unconventional [D] unfamiliar

9. [A] comfortable [B] anxious [C] confident [D] angry

10. [A] attend [B] point [C] take [D] turn

11. [A] dangerous [B] mysterious [C] violent [D] boring

12. [A] hurt [B] resis [C] bend [D] decay

13. [A] lecture [B] conversation [C] debate [D] negotiation

14. [A] trainees [B] employees [C] researchers [D] passengers

15. [A] reveal [B] choose [C] predictl [D] design

16. [A] voyage [B] flight [C] walk [D] ride

17. [A] went through [B] did away [C] caught up [D] put up

18. [A] In turn [B] In particular [C]In fact [D] In consequence

19. [A] unless [B] since [C] if [D] whereas

20. [A] funny [B] simple [C] Iogical [D] rare



Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically. 1 a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions have been 2 for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment would soon "revolutionize the very 3 of money itself," only to 4 itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so 5 in coming?

Although electronic means of payment may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work 6 the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very 7 to set up the computer, card reader, and telecornmunications networks necessary to make electronic money the 8 form of payment Second, paper checks have the advantage that they 9 receipts, something thai many consumers are unwilling to 10 . Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float" - it takes several days 11 a check is cashed and funds are 12 from the issuer's account, which means that the writer of the check can cam interest on the funds in the meantime. 13 electronic payments arc immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer.

Fourth, electronic means of payment may 14 security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information 15 there. The fact that this is not an 16 occurrence means that dishonest persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and 17 from someone else's accounts. The 18 of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a new field of computer science is developing to 19 security issues. A further concern is that the use of e lectronic means of payment leaves an electronic 20 that contains a large amount of personal data. There are concerns that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby violating our privacy.

1. [A] However [B] Moreover [C] Therefore [D] Otherwise

2. [A] off [B] back [C] over [D] around

3. [A] power [B] concept [C] history [D] role

4. [A] reward [B] resist [C] resume [D] reverse

5. [A] silent [B] sudden [C] slow [D] steady

6. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] on

7. [A] imaginative [B] expensive [C] sensitive [D] productive

8. [A] similar [B] original [C] temporary [D] dominant

9. [A] collect [B] provide [C] copy [D] print

10. [A] give up [B] take over [C] bring back [D] pass down

11. [A] before [B] after [C] since [D] when

12. [A] kept [B] borrowed [C] released [D] withdrawn

13. [A] Unless [B] Until [C] Because [D] Though

14. [A] hide [B] express [C] raise [D]ease

15. [A] analyzed [B] shared [C] stored [D] displayed

16. [A] unsafe [B] unnatural [C] uncommon [D] unclear

17. [A] steal [B] choose [C] benefit [D] return

18. [A] consideration [B] prevention [C] manipulation [D] justification

19. [A] cope with [B] fight against [C] adapt to [D] call for

20. [A] chunk [B] chip [C] path [D] trail


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.

Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.

While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI.

Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.

1. [A] denied [B] conduced [C] doubled [D] ensured

2. [A] protective [B] dangerous [C] sufficient [D]troublesome

3. [A] Instead [B] However [C] Likewise [D] Therefore

4. [A] indicator [B] objective [C] origin [D] example

5. [A] impact [B] relevance [C] assistance [D] concern

6. [A] in terms of [B] in case of [C] in favor of [D] in of

7. [A] measures [B] determines [C] equals [D] modifies

8. [A] in essence [B] in contrast [C] in turn [D] in part

9. [A] complicated [B] conservative [C] variable [D] straightforward

10. [A] so [B] unlike [C] since [D] unless

11. [A] shape [B] spirit [C] balance [D] taste

12. [A] start [B] quality [C] retire [D] stay

13. [A] strange [B] changeable [C] normal [D] constant

14. [A] option [B] reason [C] opportunity [D] tendency

15. [A] employed [B] pictured [C] imitated [D] monitored

16. [A] [B] combined [C] settled [D] associated

17. [A] Even [B] Still [C] Yet [D] Only

18. [A] despised [B] corrected [C] ignored [D] grounded

19. [A] discussions [B] businesses [C] policies [D] studies

20. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] without