雅思听力同义词替换4大类型实例讲解

时间:2020-06-28 08:41:33

雅思听力同义词替换4大类型实例讲解,小编今天给大家带来了雅思听力同义词替换4大类型实例讲解,希望能够帮助到大家,下面小编就和大家分享,来欣赏一下吧。

雅思听力同义词替换4大类型实例讲解

雅思听力同义替换之近义词替换

顾名思义,近义词替换是通过近义词的方式来展示题目和录音内容的联系,这种同义替换也是所有同义替换类别中最基本、最容易掌握的形式。考生若是对单词的近义词十分熟悉,那么便可以轻松解决这类问题。

例1 Most useful language practice: learning 23 vocabulary (《剑5》Test 2 Section 3第23题)

分析 该题是一道表格填空题,需要考生补充最有用的语言练习是什么。通过审题,考生可以发现本题的最佳定位词应该是vocabulary,而空格中缺少的应该是一个修饰vocabulary的定语成分。根据定位词vocabulary,考生可以在录音中听到这句话:“I also learnt some technical words that I hadn’t heard before.”在这句话中,考生发现通过一个正式和非正式的同义词转换,题干中的定位词vocabulary在录音中被替换为words,由此考生就找到了答案信息所在的位置。录音中words的修饰词为technical,所以technical为本题答案。

以上是一个名词近义词替换的例子,但对于广大考生而言,在做题过程中感觉更让人头疼的是动词或形容词的近义替换,因为这类词的替换更加灵活。不过,如果考生能够掌握相应的解题方法,也可轻松解题,如下例所示。

例2 STOP B: has good 16 of city centre (《剑7》Test 2 Section 2 第16题)

分析 该题也是一道表格填空题,让考生补充完整景点B有何特色。按照定位词选名词不选动词的原则,考生在处理本题时倾向于选city centre作为在录音中定位答案信息的定位词。通过of的所有格结构,考生可以判断出空格处应填名词。根据定位词,考生在听录音时,会把答案信息定位在下面这句话:“This is a place where you can sit and enjoy the wonderful views over the old commercial and banking centre of the city.”在这句话中,考生不难发现,centre of the city在句末出现,centre前还加入了冗长的修饰成分the old commercial and banking。在考试中,考生听到centre of the city时,可能已经忘了该句前面的内容了,因此很难准确找出题目答案。

如果换一种方式进行定位,效果会不会不同?这一次考生可以试试利用题干中的形容词good以及good和空格处应填词汇之间修饰与被修饰的关系在录音中定位及寻找答案。这样一来,考生很容易在录音中找到good的近义替换词wonderful,从而找到紧跟在其后面的词语views。所以,views即本题答案。

在考试时,很多考生会避免选题干中的形容词或动词定位。但是笔者认为,如果题目中空格前后的形容词或动词属于基础词汇,而且考生也比较熟悉其近义词,不妨将这些词归入定位词之一,很多时候可以快速帮助解题。

雅思听力同义替换之同根词替换

很多非英语专业的考生可能对同根词的概念比较陌生。同根词指的是词根相同、词意相近/相反的一组词。比如excite和excitement即为一组同根词。同根词在考试中出现次数较多,但很多时候考生并不能很好地掌握住这类同义替换,主要是因为在发音过程中,很多同根词由于词缀的变化会导致发音、重音等的一系列变化,这使得对发音不熟悉的考生在听录音时无法及时辨认出这些词属于同一个“单词家族”,最终导致定位答案失败。

例 Reading sessions help students to read ___________

A.analytically.

B.as fast as possible.

C.thoroughly. (《剑4》Test 3 Section 3第24题)

分析 通过审题,考生应该大致理解了题干的意思是“阅读课帮助学生读得___________”,也就是要考生填写学生阅读的效果。考生可以通过题干中的定位词reading和session在录音中定位到答案信息:“With reading, there’ll be sessions aimed at getting into the habit of analysing material as you read it …”之后,根据录音中的“getting into the habit of …”(养成……的习惯)找出答案。但是录音中使用的是analysing,它与题目选项A的analytically的发音出入较大。因此,很多考生即便听到了analysing这个词,也不能及时将它与analytically联系起来,最后导致丢分。因此,从这道题来看,听力中同根词考查的难点为重音及发音的变化,类似的同根词还有theatre—theatrical、deep—depth、analysis—analyse等。这要求考生平时在记忆单词时不仅要注意拼写上前后缀的变化,同时要注意发音的差别。

与此同时,在运用同根词替换时,考生也要小心同根词的“反义替换”,因为有些词缀本身就有相反的意思,比如in-、un-、il-、-less等就表达相反含义,所以考生在听的时候要对这些表示相反意思的词缀做到心中有数。

雅思听力同义替换之类别词替换

类别词即对一类事物的统称,比如中文里用“学科”统称学校里的某类课程,或者用“动物”统称狮子、老虎等。那么英语里同样有类似的对应词,比如subject、animal。这类单词在雅思听力中出现的频率非常高,且往往在“神不知鬼不觉”中被偷偷替换掉。下面通过实例来看一下这类替换的特点及方式。

例1 Produce from the area was used to 31 the people of London. (《剑6》Test 1 Section 4第31题)

分析 通过题干中was used to的结构,考生很容易推测出空格处应填入动词,听录音时的定位词可以选people或主语produce。Produce作名词时意思是“农产品,产品”。录音中提到下面这句话:“… consisted of farmland with crops and livestock which helped to feed that population.”在此处,考生会发现题干中的people与录音中的population进行了近义词替换,而produce在这里没有重现也没有近义词出现。但在这句话中,考生却发现了crops and livestock(庄稼和牲畜)这个表达,换句话说,类别词produce在这里被两个具体的例子替代了。这便是类别词替换的一大特色。考生在做题时,如果发现题干中有概括性的类别词,那么要注意想想属于该类别的例子都有哪些,对应的单词是什么,以帮助自己适应可能在录音中出现的类别词替换形式。这种类别词替换在选择类题目中经常出现,如下例所示。

例2 Dr Merrywhether thinks Antarctica was part of another continent because ___________

A. he has done his own research in the area.

B. there is geological evidence of this.

C. it is very close to South America. (《剑7》Test 2 Section 3第26题)

分析 这道题目问的是“Dr Merrywhether认为南极洲曾属于另一个大陆是因为什么”。在录音中,考生可以听到Dr Merrywhether提到:“… because fossils and rocks have been discovered in Antarctica which are the same as those found in places such as Africa and Australia.”在这里,fossils and rocks代指了选项B中的类别词geological evidence,而places such as Africa and Australia替换的是题干中的another continent。在这道题目中,无论是题干还是答案,都用类别词与录音中的表述进行了替换。类似的替换形式在选择题中还有很多,可以参考《剑7》Test 3 Section 4中的选择题去复习这类替换。

雅思听力同义替换之数量词替换

在考试中,数量词替换常出现的形式是形容词与数量词间的替换,也就是通过数量词表达与形容词同样的意思。比如,我们既可以直接说“这个书包可真贵”,也可以说“这个书包花了我2000块钱啊”,两句话表达同一个意思。在这两句话里,“贵”和“2000块钱”进行了替换。这种替换由于有着较高的隐蔽性,往往成为考生定位答案时的漏网之鱼。

例 When investing in stocks and shares,it is suggested that women should put a high proportion of their savings in 40 . (《剑5》Test 1 Section 4第40题)

分析 在这道句子填空题中,通常考生会选用题干中的a high proportion作为本题在录音中的定位词。在录音中,与这句话对应的答案信息是:“It is usually advised that at least 70% of a person’s savings should be in low-risk investments …”考生发现,从听的角度来讲,这句话的一大亮点便是出现了70%这个数字,而这个词与a high proportion意思相近,可以互相替换。由此,考生便能轻松找出本题的答案low-risk investments。这类替换往往出现在选择题或搭配题中,类似的考点词还有too long—fortnight、regular—every six months等。

雅思听力机经预测section one部分

雅思听力Section One

雅思听力场次 V101010S1

雅思听力场景 工作咨询

雅思听力题型 雅思听力填空10

雅思听力内容概述 美国小伙子打电话在英国果园工作

1. Visa type: blue card

2. work time from July to October

3. agency (先说的 website,小伙子很快的说 better through agency)

4. busiest time: September

5. picking date decided by harvest(应该是 weather)

6. over 18ys old salary:6.50

7. accommodation: campsite

8. work by: bike

9. must work with passport

10. should bring own lunch and supply of water

雅思听力Section One

雅思听力场次 NEW

雅思听力场景 找暑期工作

雅思听力题型 雅思听力填空10

雅思听力内容概述 在农场找暑期兼职工作,有 fruit picking,packaging 两种工作,中介绍了每种工作的要求和工资

1.来自哪里:Omerama

2.需要的技能:can use a ladder

3.can work under hot condition

4. must have good concentration

5. 摘果子薪金:$4.5/bucket

6. cannot work it if it in raining

7. Packaging 工资:$13.75 per hour

8. 最忙的时间 January(有两个干扰分别是二月和十一月)

9. 住宿的地方会提供:laundry

10. Transport:即使没有 car,也要有 bike

雅思听力Section One

雅思听力场次 NEW

雅思听力场景 咨询

雅思听力题型 雅思听力填空&表格

雅思听力内容概述 垃圾回收信息

1. Garbage collection 的时间是:Tuesday,

2. 收垃圾的时间是 8.15

3. 装食物用的可降解塑料袋在 grocery stores 可以买到

4. Any TV 不能回收

5. 垃圾按照不同的 categories 分类

6. Egg cartons 属于可回收

7.Juice bottles

8. 回收之前要 remove the labels

9. Pizza boxes

10. 在网上提供 map

雅思听力Section One

雅思听力场次 待定

雅思听力场景 酒店订房咨询

雅思听力题型 雅思听力填空10

雅思听力内容概述 预订海滨酒店

1. address: 61/71, KVIUA

2. March

3. nationalities: Canadian and Australian, total 7 persons

4. don’t ask for kitchen

5. need restaurant

6.最贵的房间 maximum price: $120

7. parents-in-law 房间希望有 good sea view

8. don’t mind the shared bathroom

9. guests can watch the birds

10. special requirement of the helicopter trip air view-photos

雅思听力Section One

雅思听力场次 NEW

雅思听力场景 求职咨询

雅思听力题型 雅思听力填空10

雅思听力内容概述 一个人问朋友申请乘务员职位的信息

1. 联系人:Sarah Meehan

2. Recruit

3. 日期:9 October

4. basic requirements: English and maths

5. occasional night shifts

6. good vision

7. helping customers

8. preparing food

9. cultural awareness

10. the training lasts 6 months

雅思听力Section One

雅思听力场次 NEW

雅思听力场景 旅游

雅思听力题型 雅思听力填空&选择

雅思听力内容概述 野营宿营地的选择,三个宿营地点的对比

1. first accommodation:near the supermarket

2. second one called studio

3. Second one has facility: microwave

4. near Sports Centre

5. third one:outdoor table

6. fee 219

7. salad with fruit

8. children can play . and table tennis

9. Barbecue at picnic area

10. dance with a band

雅思听力提分训练素材:Sexually Harass

How Likely Is Someone To Sexually Harass Others? This Scale Determines

雅思听力泛听原文

MICHEL MARTIN, HOST:

We're going to spend the next few minutes talking about one of the other major stories of recent months - excuse me - sexual harassment. In a few minutes, we'll hear a perspective on how religious institutions struggle to deal with complaints about sexual misconduct by clergy.

我们将在接下来的几分钟里谈论最近几个月的另一个主要故事——抱歉——性骚扰。几分钟后,我们将听到宗教机构如何处理神职人员性行为不当的投诉。

While a lot of the stories have rightly focused on what happened, they often don't get to the question of why some people, mainly men, sexually harass their colleagues and others don't. And one person who's been thinking about that question since the 1980s is psychologist John Pryor of Illinois State University. Years ago, he designed a scale to measure how likely someone is to sexually harass. I started by asking him about what motivated his research and how he developed it.

JOHN PRYOR: I designed the "Likelihood To Sexually Harass Scale" using some common stereotypes about men in power situations. In fact, one of the scenarios I developed focused on the casting couch in Hollywood. So I asked college men to imagine that they had such a job and that there's a woman they're attracted to. And I asked them, how likely is it that they would offer a role in a film in exchange for sexual favors?

One of the things that let me know I was onto something when I first started working on this was that there was a high level of consistency in men's responses to this. So men who would say that they would perform this act of sexual coercion in one situation were highly likely to say they'd do it in other situations. Conversely, you see that men who said they wouldn't do it were also unlikely to say they would do it in other situations.

MARTIN: Do you find specific characteristics in the individuals who are likely to engage in this conduct?

PRYOR: There are a series of beliefs that people have about sexual harassment that represent kind of a psychological underpinning for this kind of behavior - beliefs like women asking for it or women making false complaints. I can't tell you how many people I've been interviewed by ask me, what about the false complaints? Well, there are many false complaints. There are not many complaints period.

人们对性骚扰有一系列的信念,这代表了这种行为的一种心理基础,如妇女要求这种观点或妇女提出虚假申诉。我不能告诉你我面试过的人有多少,问我怎么了?嗯,有很多虚假的抱怨。投诉时间不多。

Some of the things that we see have to do with a lack of perspective-taking or empathy for other people. One of the other things I can tell you that's kind of consistent with that is that we can reduce the willingness of men to engage in sexual coercion - sexual harassment - by inducing them to think long and hard about perspectives of women. So that shows that, as a variable, something like taking the perspective of others is a very important thing, I believe.

MARTIN: What has struck you about - I mean, as we mentioned earlier, you started this research three decades ago. But now, the floodgates have been opened within the last couple of months, and there's all these different industries, as we've mentioned, including this one, where this behavior has been revealed. I'm just - I'm curious how you have reacted to this, as a person who's been studying this for so long.

PRYOR: One of the things that I and many others have concluded is it's a really common kind of thing to see some forms of sexual harassment in the workplace. So it's not surprising that you have all these people saying yeah, me too - this happened to me too. So I think that maybe what's surprising is why it took so long for people to come forth.

One of the things that I suspect though, with regard to why it has taken so long – and I'll speculate here - is I think that admitting that you were a target or a victim of sexual harassment is somewhat of a stigma. So people generally avoid identifying themselves as having some kind of stigmatizing characteristic or stigmatizing behavior they've encountered.

But when you start to see people coming forth in public, one of the things you do is you start to remove some of the stigma. So what we see is when women hear other women say, oh, this happened to me, this happened to me, and you think, yeah, it happened to me, and they're less likely to think they're going to be treated negatively for coming forth and saying that it happened to them.

MARTIN: John Pryor is a distinguished professor emeritus at Illinois State University. He created the "Likelihood To Sexually Harass Scale." We talked to him at the studios at Illinois State University. Professor Pryor, thanks so much for speaking with us.

PRYOR: Thank you, Michel. It's nice to talk to you.

雅思听力高频词汇

stereotype 刻板印象

sexual harassment 性骚扰

perspective 观点

distinguish 区分

complaint 抱怨

characteristics 特点